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Referencing

In order to successfully complete your course you must ensure that your work is correctly referenced throughout

The guidance below has been produced to assist you in the completion of your course essays, which require referencing and bibliographies.

Referencing is a simple practice that you the learner must complete. When completing your assessments, although for the most part you should answer in your own words from what you have learnt and your own experiences, you will also be expected to refer to knowledge found in academic texts (where relevant), to back up your arguments.

When completing assignment questions, it is important that any quotations or material produced by others that you use include in your answer, are ‘cited’ and included in a ‘bibliography’. This is to ensure that others reading your text can find the original source and more importantly to show that the quoted material is originally produced by someone else and is not your own.

‘Citing’ is simple enough to complete. It is basically an acknowledgement of who wrote the material you are including (the author) and what year the book was published (date). NOTE: Only the authors surname needs to be used.

Citing should be included appropriately at some point in the quote that you are using; the beginning or end of the quote would be most logical.

For example

You decide to include the following quote you have found in a book:

Current thinking, based on research, supports the view that parental involvement…

This needs to be cited and it should be changed to look like the below:

Current thinking, based on research, supports the view that parental involvement… (Kay 2005)

OR

As Kay (2005, p.5) said, ‘Current thinking, based on research, supports the view that parental involvement…’ we are now led to believe…

Cited quotes, then need to make up part of your bibliography, which is explained below.

Please provide a Bibliography at the end of your assignment showing all the sources you have used (including any material you may have downloaded from the internet.)

  • What is the purpose of a bibliography?

It enables the reader to check the sources that you have used in the report. It acknowledges the people that you have quoted in the main body of the report and thus avoids plagiarism

  • How is it written?

The conventional method for writing a bibliography is the Harvard system. Use the following formats when referencing a;

  1. Book

Author (surname, initial)  date     title     publisher     place where published.

The title of the book is usually written in italics, bold, or underlined to make it stand out.

The date of publication is in (brackets).

Example:

DAVIES. A (1999) Women’s Roles Penguin, New York

If more than one author has written a text book;

TASSONI. P & HUCKER.K (2000) Planning Play and the Early Years, Heinemann, Oxford.

  1. Journal, magazine, newspaper

The Title is placed in ‘inverted commas’

Because the article is part of a magazine, the exact page numbers need to be indicated.

Example:

‘Body Survey’ Marie Claire. No.153, May 2001, pp.75-78.

 

Websites

For websites found the required elements for a reference are:

Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. (latest update)

Available at: web site address [Accessed date].

Example:

Wikipedia (2010). Genie (Feral child). (Updated 28 Jan 2010)
Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genie_%28feral_child%29 [Accessed 31 Jan 2010].


N.B. The URL should be underlined. The title of a web page is normally the main heading on the page.  It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use.

 

How are sources referenced in the main text of the answer?

If you are using direct quotes from sources or writing other peoples’ ideas in your own words, you need to give their surname and date in the main body of the report.

Example: Smith (2010) suggested that etc....

A direct quote should be indented in the text. Miss a line before and after the quote. Place author’s surname, date and page number that quote was on in brackets after the quote.

Example:

Hucker (2001) wrote that up until the 1800’s, children were regarded as little adults. No special provision was made for them. Babies were swaddled in close fitting blankets to prevent too much movement.

 ‘Children had to work from a young age. Once laws were established regarding child labour, the number of children went down as children became a burden rather than an asset’. (Hucker 2001 p.g.45).